Concept of Archery
Bow is one of a classic weapons. It works by drawing bow to hit a target from far away. make a half moon shape with a hard wood, hang bowstep made out of animal skin, or tendon, on both sides and drawing it with an arrow will shot the arrow. The very first archer in human history is Paleolithic man, and most of them made arrow head out of flint. They were used for hunt and war, every country developed their shooting forms , and how the bow and the arrow look like by how they live and the environment. Since the 14th century, with the appearance of gun weapons, Archery lost functionality as a weapon, in the middle ages, it became an amusement attraction. It barely became a familiar sport to us in the modern times. In english, ‘Archery’ means shooting arrows, but in Korea, to distinguish Korean classic bow and western bow, we call western bow ‘Yanggung’.
< Bow and Arrows >
< World’s Bow and Display >
< World’s Bow and Display >
Principle of Archery
Archery is an act of shooting arrow by drawing bow. It contains a physical momentum energy principle, When we throw an object, the velocity of the object is determined by the momentum energy of the person who therw the object. Archery works the same way. The power of drawing bow will store power on the string, when we release it, the power transfers to the arrow to fly far away. That is why it flies faster much faster than throwing the arrow by hand. the arrow with a high velocity will not be affected by the gravity as much as an arrow with a low velocity, it makes the arrow to be able to stick to the target. More over it, arrow takes a parabolic motion. when we see the end of the arrow, we can see it is lifted up little bit. In other words, it takes a parabolic motion to reach the target.
< Concept of Normal Bow >
< Concept of Compound Bow >
The arrow not only takes parabolic motion.A phenomenon looks like an arrow is dancing while it is flying is called ‘Archer’s Paradox’, it happens because the string tends to get back to its original position while it is pulled and released. It affects the power to be transferred to the arrow obliquently, and makes the arrow shake while its flying. The sideway of the arrow functions to stabilize the spin of the arrow and makes the arrow to hit the target accurately.
The origin of Archery
Human beings developed a lot of tools and used them to satisfy their desire. Bow and arrows are one of the most closely developed to the survival and address. real bow and arrows used to be a way of survival in primative age. As a effective weapon in ancient and medieval society, and as a sport modern society archery contributed to human culture in various way archery is a great historical product. But it is unclear how bow and arrows are created. they could be created naturally to satisfy human’s desire or as a tool to hunt animals in primitive ages. The origin of Archery is also unclear. But, the experts are making a view point at the fact that primitive man did not use bow and arrows. By the origin of civilization, the bow is used since Paleolithic ages (about 10 to 30 thousand years ago), some experts insists they are used since 100thousand years ago. But archeologically, trace shows bow appears in paleolithic ages. In other words, the arrow head used in later paleolithic ages is found in South Russia, Spain, and North Africa. this proves a bow is used since later paleolithic ages, ‘Encyclepedia of British’ is presuming the use of bow in mesolithic age from cave paintings in Castellon province in South France and Spain. Guinness Book recently contains the proof of existence of bow in mesolithic ages cave painting, and presuming it must be used as a living tool in later paleolithic and mesolithic ages. People are hunting animals using bows on the cave painting which was drawn in 15 thousand years ago from now(B.C. 13,000), Paleolithic ages The oldest bow that still exists until now is found in Mannheim, Germany. Only 40cm of the bow is still remaining, exerts presumes the bow used to be 110cm, a recurved shape, and it was made 12thousand years ago. Also, some paintings hunting animals using bow are recently found in South Samarkand Termerz and Pamir Mountain. more over it, the found of a arrow head that was made 20thousand years ago makes the origin of archery goes back then
< France Lasko CavePaintings >
< Clovis in America >
Use of Archery
Archery was usually used as a weapon. During the war, archery was a ranged weapon hitting the enemies from far distance. The appearance of archery is paleolithic ages. Archery was used as a hunting tool and as a main weapon before gun like weapons in primitive society. Now a day, in modern age, archery is well known as a mind training sport. It must be bow the best rated ranged weapon. While the best melee weapon before modernization is spear, the best ranged weapon is bow. Any ethnic groups or civilizations in the world’s advanced ranged weapon is far and away, bow. Nations that tend to be heavy armament like Europe and China started to use an upgraded version of bow, ‘Catapult’. Catapult has its own pros and cons compare to bow, but then it could not replace bow completely. Since catapult follows almost the same mechanism as bow, catapult is something that is on extension line of bow. Blow gun in primitive ages could not even reach half of bow at penetration, and range, and throwing spear (Javelin) has a better penetration than archery but, it has low range. Sling is very effective on the armor, and it ranged as much as archery, but it was unable to form a dense formation using sling, and it was very hard to acquire skills. Boomerang in Australia, in fact, is a result of a devolve due to lack of wood to make bow and arrows. There were many lack of usage and utilization. Slingshot appeared after the development of rubber, it was unable to compare to bow. bow is a projectile weapon that conquered the world. Bow is an excellent weapon in all sides. But after the development of gunpowder, archery’s position is threatened. In Europe that used catapult more than bow, Gun like weapons spread quickly. Bow once used to be able to compete to gun with it’s range and rate of fire. But due to gun’s constant development and practical use, Bow loses its position of powerful military weapon.
Development of Bow and Arrows
Discovery of fire or language was a groundbreaking turning point of human beings. Discovery of bow and arrows are the same. specially as a hunting tool the power of archery made private hunting available, and not only became a base for human’s settled life but also exerted a various functions. Discovery of metal in bronze ages increased the intensity. After the development of metal, more than conventional hunting usage, they were used as a tool for settled life. Bow became a combat weapon performing power on during the war, as territorial extension, and fight of ethnic groups happens. It functioned Primitive society to build up the ancient countries specially the functions of bow were very important against the battle at mountain zone and high cattle. Bow and arrows functioned as a combat weapon as human beings move on to ancient society from primitive society, and it was absolute weapon used to conquest war until the early middle ages.
< Appearance of Gun Weapons and Decline of Bow >
The function of the bow has been weakened and lost due to the gun weapons, and it has come to a new change. It continued being together with human beings by being a tool of the civilian’s private hunting or popular game, By middle ages, it became a amusing sport, in the later middle age, it became a popular sport. It settled as a modern sport.
< Development Process of Archery >
Archery in Mythology and Legend
Artemis(Ἄρτεμις) is a goddess of Moon, Hunt, Animal, and virginity from Greek Mythology.It is a goddess identified with Diana in Roman mythology. Artemis was born between Zeus and Leto, she was a sibling with Apollo.Artemis belongs to the second generation of 12 gods of Olympus. Bear and deer, bow and arrow, crescent moon, and rabbit are typical symbols. She appears when the moon shines in the forrest like a wild virgin, hunt around with her maids, at this time, animals and vegetations start to dance. Like Apollo, she carries a bow as a weapon, and her arrows kill instantly and kill without any pain. Her personality is wild and vengeful, so there are innumerable victims of her anger.
◦ Si Wang Mo in Mongol, Alan Goa and bow
Alan-Goa is a beautiful lady who is praised as Si Wang Mo by the Mongolian. Her father is Korirat Tai-Mergen of the Coritumet tribe, and her mother is Varkochin-Goa. Here comes the meaningful word of Mongolian "Mergen", which means, "a good archer." In addition, the Mongolian word 'Goa' means 'beautiful'. So, Alan Goa was born between a brave father who was ‘a good archer’ and a beautiful mother and became a Mongolian woman and mother. According to <The Secret History of the Mongols>, Allan Goa married and had 5 sons, whose youngest son was Bodon-Karkak, and Among his descendants, Tumuchin was born. Tumuchin is named as Chingizukan as he was selected as a kakan in Khuriltai (a competition), and this is the person who built the most powerful Mongol Empire in the world. Meanwhile, ‘Gojoomong’ was born between ‘Haemosu’ and ‘Youhwa’ and became the founder of the strong Goguryeo. Joomong here is a ‘Buyeo word’ which was spread around mongol and manju in that era, this also means ‘a good archer’. The story of the founder of Goguryeo, Gojoomong and the founder of Mongol Chingizukan has a very close relationship. The Mongolian word 'Corrila tai-mergen' means 'The lord of Corrilar', or 'a Corri good archer.‘ The ancestors of the Mongolian and Koreans are the 'bow-fighters' and they have the same roots.
< Alan-Goa >
< Gojoomong >
◦ William Tell (Switzerland)
Ancient Switzerland there was a person who shot a bow very well, William Tell. One day he went to the village with his son, and there was no crowded square with many people. Instead, a high wooden stick stood, and on it was a hat with a peacock feathered on it. When William Tell passed the hat, suddenly the peacock guards flocked to the prison. ‘Anyone who goes by the hat should bow to the hat "was the reason for breaking the Duke's command. A few days later, the Duke found that William Tell had a young son and made a suggestion. The suggestion was to shoot an apple that was put on head of his young son, then he will release William Tell. William Tell hesitated whether he would shoot his son instead of apple, but accepted the proposal. He decided to believe his bow skill. As suggested, the duke placed William Tell's son under a large tree and placed an apple on his head. Looking away from his young son, William Tell knew there was no way but to hit an apple. William Tell pulled the arrow. The arrow flew across the air and exactly hit the apple. William Terry ran, tears of relief with his young son, and was released from prison. The Duke also applauded William Tell's bow skill.
< William Tell and His Bow >
◦ Robin Hood (United Kingdom)
Robin Hood is a well-known character in the novel, the story of legendary outlaw Robin Hood who suppressed Sherwood forest. He was originally Earl of Hutingdon, who broke the national law and hid in the woods of Sherwood with his men, raided the nobles and monks, and took away the riches and distributed them to the poor. He was also a good archer. One day Sherwood's lord opened an archery contest to catch him, and Robin Hood, who did not know it, was caught, but escaped with the help of his men and helpers. On the other hand, the king who heard of Robin Hood goes to the Sherwood Forest in disguise. Robin Hood, who does not know this fact, tries to take the money and notice he is the king and tells him that he is only a righteous person on the poor side. The king understands Robin Hood’s circumstances and starts to trust him. Robin Hood later received his position and assisted the king in winning the war. But then when the king dies and his son comes to the throne, he is driven out. Robin Hood returns to the Sherwood Forest where the people waiting for him again.
< Robin Hood and His Bow >
◦ Apollo's Bow and Cupid's Arrow (Greece)
Apollo is the god of sun. one of a twelve Olympus god, and the son of Zeus He is also the brother of the goddess of the moon, Artemis., His weapon is a bow and arrow symbolizing sunlight. Not only even if the target is far away, his arrow, the proximity strategy may become fatal, but also has the power to heal wounds. Apollo, known as the god of bow and arrow, found a large snake called Phytos, with a lot of flora and fauna in the flood that swept the earth one day. Recognizing that Phytos was a symbol of evil, Apollo instantly flashed an arrow. But Phitos hid in the cave at the foot of the Mount Parnassos, avoiding the arrows flying at the fingertips. Apollo shoot a thousand of arrows of sunlight after chasing Phytos into the cave. Finally, Phytos died of black blood. Apollo commemorated this victory and decided to open a festival that will take place every eight years. The event was held the following year of the Olympia festival was held, and the winner was awarded a laurel pipe. On the other hand, Apollo saw somebody try to shoot an arrow by pulling a protest on his bow. Cupid or Eros, a god who controls love and desire. Apollo, angry at the naive childlike Eros holding his bow, said. "Only I can shoot the bow who defeated the giant snake. A child does not touch such a dangerous thing, go play a torch." Eros, who was unhappy with Apollon's boast, decided to reveal the nature of his bad boy and let him sleep for a while. Eros pulled out two arrows from the arrow case at the back. One of them was a sharp arrow in gold, an arrow to fall into love and lust. The other was an arrow made of lead, which had the effect of chilling. Eros took the bow of Apollo and fled to the top of Parnassus mountain. And shot the gold arrow to Apollo. The arrow flies vigorously and hits Apollon and penetrates to his bone marrow. Eros shot another arrow to the beautiful fairy Daphne, the daughter of Peneus. As a result, Apollo loved Daphne passionately, and Daphne became disgusted. Apollo followed Daphne endlessly, and Daphne continued to run away. However, Daphne was tired of escaping and was almost caught up with Apollo. Daphne, who was in a hurry, begged her father, the god of the river, Penneus. To change herself into a life other than a woman. Then Daphne 's legs began to harden, and she began to put her roots down on the ground. Her beautiful hands turned into branches and her hair became blue leaves. And soft tits were covered with bark. She has become a laurel tree. Now Apollo can no longer see the beautiful Daphne. But his love was not over. Apollo grabbed Daphne, a tree. Daphne 's body was thrilled in a hard bark. Apollo decided to take the laurel tree that Daphne transformed into his tree and gave it an everlasting green. Apollo failed to make Daphne his wife, but Daphne was able to shine forever.
◦ Astra (India)
The term Astra is Indian Sanskrit, which means 'weapon'. Astra means magical bow and arrow among the weapons that have been gained from the power of the gods. Astra, who borrowed the power of Chang Sisin Brahma, is called "Brahmastra "Astra, who borrowed the power of the god of fire, calls it" Agnese Shasta. "In other words, the power of the god that he summoned is contained in Astra. In general, the Astras are usually long-range weapon, but some of them are not. In order to use these Astra, the name of the controlling god must be pronounced. Astra, considered the best of long - range weapons in Indian mythology, is competitive to Indian gandi bars. We can not easily determine the superiority of these two weapons because the strength of the weapons themselves is almost the same. However, depending on the skill of the archers who use weapons, the force exerted varies. And it works the same way to the Astras that was summoned from different god, in the legend, the Indian Hero Arjuna has dropped Astra Agnayastra using Astra Brahmastra.
◦ Myths of descendants(China)
When the age of king Yo(堯) in Chinese myth, suddenly rising up 10 suns. Although the sun was the son of Jejun(帝俊) the Emperor of sky, it was risen in the sky alternately each day for the original day, but one day the playfulness was activated, and ten suns are emerged at the same time. Since there are ten suns in the sky, the ground has become like a hell to light and heat. The wether is so hot like a hell, people is in pain and shaman who hold a ritual for rain is dead. Jejun the Emperor of sky is pain because people’s tragedy and resentment. Jejun the Emperor of sky tried to solve the incident by sending it to the god man who shoots the bow well. He is Ye(羿). Jejun the Emperor of sky gave a beautiful and strong Bow and a quiver with a white arrow to him and he told him go to the land and scold his son to never do playfulness. And he said help king Yo(堯) to kill the monsters. Ye is fall down to land with his wife Hang-ah(姮娥). Jejun just said scold his son’s playfulness, but he was so angry and could not bear it seeing people dying under the burning sun heat. He shooted his son, sun by jejun gaved him. Every time Ye shoot his bow, the fireball in the sky exploded and fall down the Big golden three legs raven, spirit of the sun. If king Yo doesn’t pick out a arrow because he think it is very danger if all sun is dead he must shoot the all sun. After solve the sun problem, Ye started to kill monsters. Ye killed Monster Aryu(猰貐), which have human’s head, horse’s leg, red cow’s body and eating people and Chacchi(鑿齒) which have beast’s head and human’s body with 1.50~80 meter teeth, water and fire monster Guyoung(九嬰) with nine heads, violent giant bird Deapung(大風)(sometimes it is called phoenix or peacock), a big snake Pasa(修蛇) which eating people by make wind and waves and a big boar, destroy farmland and eating people and livestock. Ye is completed Jejun’s mission, but he does not comeback to the sky because he killed Jejun’s sons. His wife Hang-ah blame him. she does not comeback to sky and she is forced from GOD due to husband. So she is complaints now she is human so she will die. From that time Ye roam about the world. On he is roaming, he betray his wife with the GOD of water Habeak’s wife Bokbi(宓妃). Habeak doesn’t blame his wife because Habeak is also ill-behaved. Habeak is so angry, and he follow back Ye and Bokbi by transforming for dragon. On the way to follow back Ye and Bokbi, Habeak have some mistake, so he make flood. Then Ye shoot an arrow at the Dragon who Habeak transformed. The arrow hit dragon’s eye. His wife Hang-ah's grudge had only deepened. Ye is sorry for his wife and dicide to visit Suwangmo(西王母) to get the elixir of life. Luckily, Suwangmo have good feeling of Ye. She give the elixir of life to him. She said, ‘It is an immortality that two people divide and bottles eat, and when one eats, it can go up to heaven to become a GOD’. he want share the elixir of life because he doesn’t want comeback to the sky. But her idea was different from him. She want became a GOD, so she drink elixir of life when she is alone. But she could not possess her original place of living and settle down moon country. there is two ending. first, she is changed toad to divine punishment by desire. Second, She just live in Moon Castle forever. In China, they usally said Wallgung(月宮) Hang-ah(姮娥) to pretty woman that is Ye’s wife Hang-ah. His misfortune betrayed by his wife did not end. Ye(羿) have a student. His name is BongMong(蓬蒙). He taught all of the archery to his disciples. Start with training that does not detect eyes, after training to see small things bigger, he entered full-fledged archery and gave me all my talent. However, unlike a generous but generous teacher, the disciples have an itching palm. I decided to have a teacher with much better ability than I and finally kill my teacher. One day, Bongmong shot an arrow toward him on the way back of Ye coming back from hunting. Then Ye also shot arrows and dropped along with the promotion of the arrow taken by Bongmong. Bongmong did not give up and continued shooting arrow and Ye also block same way. Finally Ye does not have any arrows, but Bongmong have one arrow. When Bongmong shoot the arrow, Ye blocks arrow by his tooth. Bongmong carried out a mistake by felling under his teacher Ye. Ye forgave Bongmong. He is very cool and he believe BongMong is never won him. Although Bongmong beyond the crisis pretended to reflect on, inside had a resentment. He secretly waited for a counterattack while hiding a solid peach wooden stick. Such a chance came a day. At the moment of pulling the string to fly the fly geese, Bongmong took out the hidden bar and struck Ye. Ye fell down on the spot and died.
< Hyu-Ye-Sa-Il(Ye is shooting the sky) >
◦ Jeju Island Genesis myth(Chun-Ji-Wang-Bon-Pul-i)
In the myth of Jeju Island, there is a story about the sun that flied side by side in the sky and the Deabyulwang shooting the moon. Two raised suns and moons floating in the sky are said to be disasters, heroes appear and shoot and solve the bow. Considering the myth of the Goguryeo founding founder Ju Meng also is in the context of Mergen myth that extends to Mongolia, Manchuria, the Korean Peninsula and China. A story of a hero that multiple myths surfaced and the village community was rescued and it seems that myths emerged as religious and religious centered around ethnic groups or around the periphery, It can be one of the most universally spread myths in Asia. Through this myth, heroes in myths of East Asia can learn that they have performed archery to "make life alive", not "kill" the archery of life. You will have to interpret insight as to where the hero's arrows are aiming and where they symbolize.
< Picture Shoot Big Bird by Arrow >
< Archery in Poster of Global Warming Warning >
< DeaByulWang SoByulWang >
Category of Archery Culture
The bow was started with hunting which is a means for the survival of the ancient society. After the era, war for territorial conflicts between tribes, rituals of commemorative events and ceremonial events, past exams to confirm unmanned skill, sports, gambling games or enjoying games, etc. have been changed and utilized. In the Confucian society of the Joseon Dynasty, archery was greatly encouraged as a means to cultivate virtues and examples. In the test that we see to become an officier, there are the manners, music, archery, equestrian, calligraphy and mathematics subjects that six subjects should have, double equestrian and archery were important subjects. Also, archery was the most important examination subject in the trial for general selection. Thus archery was a means of physical and mental training that was actively performed regardless of status. King of the Joseon Dynasty enjoyed archery, encouraged this. Civil servants also often shot the bow and frequently opened wages and archery competitions. In the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty, King Sejo held Archery competition with kindred of the king and vassal of merit. Sometimes Calling generals to archery, giving prizes to outstanding people or promoting them. The late Joseon Dynasty King Jungjo is known as an expert archer. In addition, social education functionally highly evaluated, encouraging it in the national dimension, courtesy and institutionalized the implementation procedures and methods. In addition, the bow has been used as a tool for various ceremonies and play in the royal family, aristocrats, and private houses, but recently it has been used in various games and sports competitions. In this way, the history of mankind together with the bow becomes a clue to understand the contemporary culture. It is universal, it also becomes a feed that can be recognized as a general culture. Let's see the cultural category of the bow.
- Bow and Hunt
Before humanity knew farming and pastoralism, it remained alive for hunting and collection during millions of years. The history of long hunting shows that hunting methods and tools varied according to times and regions. The early Paleolithic age hunting tool was mainly simple stone and bone made, and in the case of technology it was a method of driving the beast into the cliff. Hunting tools and extensions such as bows, spears, gigs and others extended from the middle Paleolithic age widely. Hunting was an important element of life even after fixing life and agricultural living began, but also in aristocrats and royal family, we enjoyed sports. It is said that the ancient Egyptian nobles chiefly made hunting using various hunting tools such as bows and spears. In other words, hunting with a bow is started for survival, which is the most desire for human beings to rise and, over time, it is a basic item of skill and test, or that a bow has been used for play I can know.
- Bow and War
The invention of the bow and arrow make a breakthrough change to humanity. Especially as a tracking weapon for survival, it also played a major role, but brought various changes to humanity. It has been developed in the form of personal hunting, the background has made it possible for human beings to settle down, and it has developed over the ages. After discovering the metal of bronze and increasing the strength of the arrows and inventing the ironware, it became even more powerful than the previous hunting application. Bow has secured and expanded territory for fixing life, fight for survival among tribes developed as a powerful combat weapon which greatly executes war. It played an important role to build primitive ancient nations. The bow function was recognized as an important weapon in the fight against mountainous areas and high castle not to mention especially long distances. After all, the bow and arrows became to demonstrate powerful functions by the survival means after the late era with the turning weapons of the ancient society, and its power led to absolute weapons in the conquest war until the beginning of medieval society. However, since the 14th century the function of bows and arrows was weakened and lost as the explosive weapons emerged.
- Bow and Rituals
Bows and related rituals have been done in various fields. First, Bow and almanac. At times of age customs are divided into 24 seasons of the lunar calendar and holidays. It is a collective or common, ethnically handed ritual, ritual event and play. seasonal customs being done today are deformed. It is also the fact that there are many rituals that are not actually being handed down, just being recorded only in old literature. The events what archery is the main axis for these ceremonial activities are as follows.
||following Dongguksesigi, on the Hansik day in March, Seoul and local warriors gathered the neighbors into one and opened the bowing competition away from their shoulders. they shoot a bow, divided win and loss, then played very happily like drinking afterwards. In Namwon, they gathered at Yongdam or Yulim, drank and shot the bow. At the third day of the third lunar month, the man opened a bow tournament to train the body and mind. It is a fun game that loosens the body that was hardened during the winter and competes for the skill of the bow.
||At the festival on the fifth day of the fifth month of the lunar calendar, Besides the sumo play in various parts of the country, bow and horse riding flourished. For this reason, generals practice archery and horse-riding based on early winter.
||The day yudut, at court, a person who hit the rice cakes on the gold dish and soaked the arrow on a small composite bow ate the rice cake. Rice cake Bundan used at this time was smooth and it was very difficult to shoot. This play was played on Dano Day in China, and was carried out in the country of yudunal.
||Records of Silla Dynasty (元日, New Year's Day) and Chuseok (dongi) are recorded in sillajo, sillajo and dangseo. it records " On August fifteenth, we hold a festival and gather our heads and gather archery. " And at『Buksa Sinrajo "Sound the music on the full moon day of August and shoot the bow for the administrator and give the words and silk on top"
||People in province gathered together to practice archery at seodae. In September, attendant and officials awarded a prize to a man who shot the bow and gave him a prize.
||According to Dongguk Sesigi, in December of the lunar calendar, yeonjong fired cannons from inside the palace. Shooting a lighted arrow and gong and drumming is a tribute to the narye of the king, who practiced exorcism in the last night of the year.
Second is shamanism. The bow and arrow were used as symbols symbolizing spirits in each region or used as a pure hemoglobin. In the wake of the act of realizing the role of the unconscious, the snowy landscape used in Daejeon and Chungcheong provinces has been used as a key element in the exorcism rite. Viewing arrows, arrows, and spores used in this section include the following. The bow was an tool from the exorcise, and the action was to shoot the bow. Make the bow to the bamboo, twist the thick cotton yarn into each corner and tie it to each other to tie it to each other. The arrow was called ' Fire ', ' Fire Arrow ', ' susu ', ' saldae ' and ' susu. ', Saldae is used to exorcise, and what is called fire arrows is attributed to the use of arrows and arrows. Susu sardea were used to fasten arrows with coarse arrowheads. A total of 21 arrows were made to form an arrow, and the arrow was cut and pasted on the arrow. Tteokkomul were sized to form the size of a ginkgo nut, and stuck to the blade of red pepper powder, which was used for cheating or weight loss, and were mixed with powdered red pepper powder. The arrow was about 35 cm long, and the arrow use Hwasang. Salpuri Hwasang is drawing shape of person and write 天殺, 地殺, 年殺, 月殺, 日殺, 時殺, 劫殺, 災殺 to black color on White paper. Write 速去千里 一時消滅 on left side. Then stick the Hwasang wound on a thin stick and put it in a pot. Then, it measures about 46 cm long and about 42 centimeters long. When prepared, the unconsciousness begins. Insert a Salpuli Hwasang at the pot, and if a legal guy strikes a breakdown of dance, Bodhisattva will start taking a bow one by one. Fires all 21 arrows to Salpuli Hwasang for arrows falls off a Hwasang. Even though the Salpuri Hwasang the arrows in the middle of the arrow, they continue to shoot arrows. They believed that the total weight of the 21 bows was completely knocked down by Salpuri Hwasang. The use of a bow was frequently used in royal palaces. Maids were asked to shoot a Hwasang drawn paper 3times a day, and when the paper is broken, changed it to silk. Then set it up as the body of the person who is going to be cursed and buried it in the pit. According to ‘Dongguk sesigi’, people shot a canon called ‘yeon jong po’ in the cattle before the December ancestral rites which is the last ancestral rite for a year. People believed shooting fire arrows and ringing gongs and drums kicks out the evils in the cattle. This seems to imitate Chinese customs that spark firecrackers on the New Year's Day to amaze demons. In the case of Pyongyang in the north, it can be seen from various records that they particularly admired archery. The following is quoted from the record of Sui "In Pyongyang, we build a seo-dang(school) next to the street, gathering unmarried pieces together to practice reciting worship and archery." In the book Kwongun(權近) there is a record that the archery culture has developed from long ago in the Pyongyang Department. Third is Rite of passage. Collectively refers to various rituals and rituals that an individual conducts as it passes through a new position, status, state. A person's life goes through a tange in several states, but birth, adult, marriage, death etc are generally important rite of passage. "Bow" is also used in a symbolic sense for such transit rituals, especially, it is commonly seen in nomads northern such as Mongolia. In the case of Mongolia, she gave birth to a child, gave a picture in which a bow was drawn if it was a son, gave a small bow, and attached an arrow, for example. When someone married, a craftsman gave my son-in-law as a gift. This means to say "prosperity" and wish for a rich family. In Korea there is a custom that arranges items on the first birthday of a child and believes that what the baby first takes decides the fate of the child. At this time, the items to be arranged are money, bow, arrow, brush, inkstone, ink. At this time, money represents wealth, brush study, and bow symbolizes courage.
< Bow Craftsman, French Gimme Museum - Kim Jungun >
< Huntingscene - Kim Husin >
< Shamanistic Spirits Museum in Gunsan University >
Archery Culture of Modern Sports
- Changes in Bow Culture
When the function of the bow was lost in the war, the bow was taken over as a personal hunting activity and as one of the spreading play means. In particular, it continued till the end of the Middle Ages sports enjoyed by the masses, which became an entertaining sports centering on medieval aristocrats, and this became the background that became established in the field of modern sports. The bows and arrows spontaneously born and used in the primitive society have been transformed and developed according to the characteristics between each ethnic group and region in the whole world. According to the climate and the living environment, a bow with unique features is developed, and the appearance and usage of the bow are displayed diversely. Looking at the kinds of judicial judgments of the countries of the world typified by the anthropologist "ESMorse" of the United States, first of all, the pinch style used by the indigenous people of the area on the whole continent (Pinch Style - ), The Mediterranean style mainly used in Europe and the Mediterranean region (Mediterranean Style - a method of pulling with fingers using cognition and stoppage) and the Mongolian style mainly used by Mongolian ethnic groups (Mongolian Style - thumb And a method of pulling only the thumb). Archery, which has been called Archery since then, has been developed by the International Archery Federation (FITA, present. WA). It is difficult to estimate the first time the archery was performed as a sport. However, the country that I went first in archery sports is known in England. Indeed, the UK has been done with a long history of archery compared to other sports, but "Archery tournament" is exactly that. Arriving in England at the age of Henry VII (1538) Archery was held several times as entertainment games, active in sports into all Europe, and since 1673, except in the period of two wars, in the UK Yorkshire region, The annual archery tournament was held and the name of the winner was recorded, which boosts this. Therefore, some scholars have taken UK as an example at sports archery origin. However, the time when archery was held as sports can be said to have been done in many countries including the European region. After that, the archery according to the historical and regional characteristics of each country began to settle in sports that can develop to various competition methods and can be shared between the country and the country, so that it can be chilocil in international competition. The first time the archery competition was held was the 2 nd Paris Olympic Games held in France in 1900. Although the archery should have been tried at the international convention which integrated various competition methods of each country, the Paris Olympic Games, meaning that since the archery informed the formation of international modern sports, the archery played a role of bridge development afterwards, its significance is big. At that time the archery had the character of a small international convention where only a few countries such as the UK, France, Belgium, Austria, Sweden and the United States, mainly Europe, participated. Since then, it was suspended after being adopted at the US St. Louis Olympics in 1904, London Britain in 1908, Antwerp Games in Belgium in 1920, but in the 1972 20th Munich Olympic Games in 52 years after the competition method Integration and regulation have been officially adopted, and have reached today.
- Introduction of Korean Archery
Korea's archery was introduced in 1959. Due to the late teacher who was a physical education teacher Sookbongun after accidentally buying archery at an antiquary store near the central market of Seoul, after searching for the spread of archery. In 1962, three years later in 1962, Colonel Rott showed the archery demonstration for the first time at the Gwangjeon Park Sokhojong and the following year the archery competition was held at the National Bow Competition as a classification event. It was introduced in Korea in earnest. In particular, the < 6th National Archery Competition > was the first official archery event in Korea, and at that time the United Nations Army General Commander "Howes' Captain" and other foreign diplomatic missions participated. Korea was officially joined the International Archery Federation (FITA) in 1963 and announced the opening of the official Korean archery of the international sports world. In 1966, an archery workshop was held for the first time in Korea, and a national male and female archery type championship tournament was created. In the 1970s Korean archery was developed greatly. At that time, the tensions between the countries surrounding the Korean peninsula led to the strengthening of security and physical education. Male students encouraged taekwondo, female students encouraged archery, and spreading archery as well as spreading of the base greatly affected. In 1974 it was the first one. A work goodwill archery competition was held and archery was adopted as an official event in the 3rd National Juvenile Sports Games meeting. Especially athletes were excavated early to adopt formal event of archery 's boys' sports education, and excellent national team players were produced. Archery was adopted as an official event as the international convention at the 8th Bangkok Asian Games in 1978. Korea Women's Participation for the first time as an international competition and accomplished a great achievement of second-group victory with the Korean archery's first international competition Kim Jin-ho. In the Berlin World Championship Competition, which first appeared in 20 years since the introduction of archery in Korea in 1979 the following year, he won the gold medal in female individual fight and group battle, ranked first in 60 meters, 50 meters, and 30 meters. The 1979 World Championship was a great accomplishment that not only Korea Archery, but also the first record match in the history of sports in Korea was accomplished. In 1983 he separated the archery of the Archery Association and formed the first archery regular team. The Archery Association is actively investing in expanding the base of archery and excavating talented people, developing advanced equipment, promoting sports science for the first time in physical education organizations and enhancing the competitiveness of players We prepared a systematic foundation for conversion. Also, in order to improve the qualitative level of archery, we checked the quality of the equipment, not only made it equipped with the world's highest level equipment but also encouraged the development of quality, and made a chance to archery people from all over the world like Korean equipment. The Archery Association held the 33rd World Archery Championships in Seoul in 1985, served as President of the Asia Archery Federation in 1986, Vice Chairman of the World Archery Federation in 1993, and founded the foundation for internationalization of Korean archery. Since 2005, we have been holding the Renaissance era of Korean archery with active investment and support. Development and training of the players' custom training We supported the improvement of competitiveness through training of sports science such as application of scientific training method through computerization and quality improvement of domestic equipment. While vigorously promoting domestic conventions and cultivating dream trees and various archery power generation projects, we have made an effort to develop archery for advanced and transparent association management. Patrol guidance dispatching of developing countries and archery equipment support, such as support for archery equipment, also endeavored to expand the global base for Asian archery president. With such efforts, the Spanish Madrid World Championships all season sweepstakes, the Doha Asian Games all season sweep, the 2008 Beijing Olympic Girls' Association 6 consecutive championships, and male group 3 consecutive championships. Even at the 2010 Guangzhou Asian Games, we continued to achieve a 2 consecutive all-season sweep. Iin the case of archery in sports competition, the Korean national team is stands out. Korean always swept the three medals of gold, silver, and copper, the rules themselves changed and the players in the country who made it to the finals had changed so that three or more people could not advance. That is why the Korean national team was amazing. Korean often broke the lens of the camera (aka Bullseye) installed in the middle of the target at a distance of 30M. Easily gained full marks for each game, the morale of the players in other countries was demoralized. Finally, the 30 M shooting was abolished. In this way, the changed history of the Olympic Archery Racing Rules can be explained as a history to prevent Korea's medal monopoly. Ironically, the country that most adapts to the changed rules is Korea.
- Where to Pass Down Archery Culture of Modern War (Africa)
It is rare to see the bow in the battlefield now, even in Africa it is only used for sporting events and leisure. Some special forces are using partly in actual war with attention to quietness, but it is right to see that it is almost gone. Instead of attaching a silencer, a gun is taking the place. Although the sound of the silencer gun is quite large as a weapon, it is a part that can be solved by using subsonic bullets. Bow and crossbow are not without noises. When the bow demo is Tingill, a fairly loud sound is heard, so the long bow receives an evaluation that the noise problem could not be solved. Recently in Africa guns are becoming popular in civil war and social turmoil. Firearms are also commonplace as even nomads who maintain primitive lives armed with automatic rifles and machine guns. Nonetheless, in some African countries such as Ethiopia shoot a bow in conflict during war. Although it tends to gradually turn into a war with guns gradually due to firearms flowing throughout the world, including Somalia, still doing war with archery while short in part. It is not a shortage of modern guns. As the modernized war as a firearm is wounded, the damage will be great, so they fight using Bow just with the agreement of the leaders of both sides. War is costly and the position is to minimize the damage.
- Modern archery competition method
The rules of archery are decided by the General Assembly of the World Archery Federation. The mode of competition determined by the General Assembly shall be applied based on the World Archery Championships held in odd-numbered years once every two years. The archery, which was a simple record game in the early days, is being changed into a game mode full of various variables and excitement in order to attract more attention to the public with the development of mass media such as TV.Since the archery game has started, the way of playing is as follows.
- ◦ 1931 total points system
- ∙ 1st World Archery Championship
- ∙ Integration section: 30M, 40M, 50M total
- ◦ 1932 total points system
- ∙ 2nd World Archery Championship
- ∙ Integration section: 30M, 40M, 50M total
- ◦ 1933 ~ 1934 FITA ROUND
- ∙ 3rd and 4th World Archery Championship
- ∙ Classification by male and female division
- ▹ Male parts: 30M, 50M, 70M, 90M
- ▹ Female part: 30M, 50M, 70M
- ◦ 1935 ~ 1948 FITA ROUND
- ∙ 5th to 12th World Archery Championship
- ∙ Long distance, short distance (long/short 50M plays twice)
- ▹ Man long distance 50M, 70M, 90M / short distance 25M, 35M, 50M
- ▹ Female long distance 50M, 60M, 70M / short distance 25M, 35M, 50M
- ◦ 1949 ~ 1955 FITA ROUND
- ∙ 13rd to 17th World Archery Championship
- ◦ Held twice a year since the 16th convention in 1953
- ∙ increased the chance of shooting by double
- ▹ Men long distance 50M, 70M, 90M / short distance 25M, 35M, 50M each 2 times
- ▹ Female long distance 50M, 60M, 70M / short distance 25M, 35M, 50M twice each
- ◦ 1957 ~ 1985 DOUBLE FITA ROUND
- ∙ 18th to 33rd World Archery Championship
- ∙ Adopted the 1972 Munich Olympic Archery
- ◦ Maintained by 1984 LA Olympic Games
- ∙ It was a period when the US had a stellar performance,
- ∙ Made no big difference since there were a lot of chance of shooting.
- ▹ Male: 30M, 50M, 70M, 90M 2 times each of 36 shots (288 shots)
- ▹ Female part: 30M, 50M, 60M, 70M 2 times each of 36 shots (288 shots)
- ◦ 1987 ~ 1991 GRAND FITA ROUND
- ∙ 34th to 36rd World Archery Championship
- ◦ Adopted the rule to 1988 Seoul Olympic Games
- ∙ As the United States moves away from participation and Korea and Europe become stronger
- ∙ In the past, only the record total was ranked in the final position, and its changed into leaving out system.
- ∙ Top 24 finishers in the preliminaries record total will join main game.
- ▹ Male: 30M, 50M, 70M, 90M Once each 36 shots (144 foot SINGLE FITA ROUND)
- ▹ Female part: 30M, 50M, 60M, 70M each 36 times each once (144 foot SINGLE FITA ROUND)
- ∙ Main line
- ▹ 1/8 FINAL: 90M, 70M, 50M. Total 36 records Total of 6 sub-records eliminated
- ▹ 1/4 FINAL: 9 feet each in order of 30M, 50M, 70M, and 90M. Total 36 records Total of 6 sub-records eliminated
- ▹ SEMI FINAL: 90m, 70m, 50m, 30m in each order. Total 36 records Total 4 records dropped
- ▹ FINAL: Nine feet each in the order of 90M, 70M, 50M, and 30M. Final ranking with 36 total records
- ◦ 1993 ~ 2009 OLYMPIC ROUND
- ∙ 37th to 45rd World Archery Championship
- ∙ 1992 Adoption of the Olympic Games in Barcelona
- ∙ Maintained the rule by Beijing 2008 Olympic Games
- ◦ Compound events were also selected as a official sport since 38th world championship
- ∙ The preliminary contest top 64 finishers join main game.
- ▹ Male: 30M, 50M, 70M, 90M Once each 36 shots (144 foot SINGLE FITA ROUND)
- ▹ Female part: 30M, 50M, 60M, 70M each 36 times each once (144 foot SINGLE FITA ROUND)
- ◦ For the Olympic Games, RANKING ROUND 70M 2 times 36 shoots each
- ∙ In the main competition, take 18 shoots each until 1/32.
- ∙ From 1/16 to final, take 12 shoots
- ∙ Perform cumulative tournament
- ◦ 2006 Archery World Cup was founded, 16 pairs (4 to 4 end) unified by 12 cumulative total of individual competition to the finals, before the Hong Sung Chim precedence
- ◦ From the 45th World Championships tournament, 16 competitions were selected for this event and the cumulative system of 24 shots (6 to 4 end) record was implemented
- ◦ Individual exhibition set system enforced from the 46th World Championships
- ◦ Choosing 104 people from the 47th World Championships in qualifying, the top 8 players go straight in 32 games, the remaining 96 players to the 48 final, 24 top 8, 32 against the Chilum
- ∙ In the case of compound 50M 2 times After 15 preliminary rounds (3 out 5 end) tournament system enforcement
- ◦ From 2014 qualifying unified 70 M 2 times, Lee curve team 6 pairs 4 sets, 4 4 set system implemented